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* Molecules that link amino acids
* Also known as Matrixyl and Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3
* Please read TIA's articles on What Is It: Pentapeptides and the Latest Botox in a Jar Potion and What Is It: Matrixyl
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 was developed by the corporations Sederma SA and Proctor & Gamble and originally named Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-3, but later renamed to Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 to reflect a correction in the data on its molecular structure, according to research. It is also included in many commercial formulas under the trademark of Matrixyl.
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 is a pentapeptide, synethsized chain protein created by linking five amino acid peptides. This chain creates a response in the dermis of the skin that stimulates collagen and elastin fibroblasts, developing fibronectin (FN) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG), according to research. Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 is a small molecule that penetrates the skin easily and is structurally similar to the precursor of collagen type I. It is thought that pentapeptides can communicate with a cell and program it to do specific things, including repair work.
Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 is considered to be as effective against wrinkles as retinol, but less irritating. According to SmartSkinCare.com, "One study found that Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 was as effective as retinol in repairing sun-damaged skin but was devoid of side-effects. Most other studies showed at least some improvement in various objective and subjective measures of wrinkles."
Independent in vitro studies (unlike most studies available on Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4, which have been done by P&G, originators of Matrixyl) demonstrated an increase in synthesis of Collagen I by 212%, Collagen IV by 100 to 327% and Hyaluronic Acid by 267%. Collagen I is predominant among the 19 forms of collagen found in the human body; therefore increasing production of Collagen I has a very dramatic effect on rebuilding the skin. Six month in vivo studies showed mean wrinkle depth was reduced by 17%, surface area containing deep wrinkles was reduced by 68%, surface area containing moderate wrinkles was reduced by 51% and skin roughness by 16% (Source).
Safety Measures/Side Effects:
The EWG gives Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4 a zero rating based on 100% data gap. No studies were found that noted harmful side effects or safety warnings regarding its use. However, independent studies of this ingredient are rare.
Recommended Products with Palmitoyl Pentapeptide-4:
Medik8 Pretox Infin8 2nd Generation Triple Peptide Gel ($135 in the shop); Michael Todd Damascus Rose Enriched Anti-Wrinkle Cream ($89 in the shop); Juice Beauty Green Apple Firming Body Moisturizer ($18 in the shop); Medik8 Firewall ($145 in the shop)