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Exfoliation 101- from brushing to retinol
What is it and why: Dry brushing is part of Cindy Crawford’s daily regimen (as well as that of our own lovely Kim). Brushes help remove dead skin cells, dirt and keep pores unclogged. Not just limited to the face, brushing is great for all over the body to keep skin soft and body breakouts at bay.
How it exfoliates: Removes dead skin cells on the surface. The powered, so called “sonic”, brushes work more effectively than a normal brush as the head rotates and oscillates.
How much is enough: As much as daily (or alternate with other techniques below).
Recommended? Highly – skin looks and feels better and responds well to cleansers and serums afterward.
What to use: For body a natural (boar) brush,or Clarisonic Plus (with the large brush head); for face Clarisonic or the affordable Sirius Skinsonic. In the same vein, but not as gentle are Korean cloths.
What is it and why: Facial or body scrubs are turbo charged cleansers that help remove dead cells, excess oil and improve circulation. Depending on the ingredients in a particular product, they may also deliver some nutrients and can be used as a mask before rinsing off.
How it exfoliates: Scrubs usually contain some (gentle) abrasive ingredient such as jojoba beads, sugar, salt grains, ground nut shells and the like.
How much is enough: About twice a week. I skip brushing when I decide to use a scrub. Why scrub rather than brush? Scrubs are effective at removing excess oil and so are useful when your skin is especially oily (think summer months) or on the verge of misbehaving.
Recommended? Yes, unless you have very dry skin.
What to use: Check out our Five Best facial scrubs
AHAs and glycolics
What is it and why: Glycolic acid is a type of alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) naturally found in sugar cane. As the AHA with the smallest molecule and the greatest penetration, glycolic acid deeply exfoliates to remove skin that is dry, coarse, or dead. Other AHAs include mandelic acid, made from bitter almonds, citric acid, malic acid (from apples) and lactic acid. Read more on AHA and glycolic.
How it exfoliates: Alpha hydroxy acids are clinically proven to loosen the glue-like substances that hold skin cells together, shedding the top layer of dull, damaged skin. Thus it achieves a deeper exfoliation than scrubbing or brushing.
How much is enough: If you are trying to repair dull and age damaged skin then you can use a glycolic based product two or three times a week. Or even every day for a short period of time. It is important to start to decrease as your skin looks better and ultimately get to the point where a once a week glycolic mask is enough.
Recommended? Highly – it will help a lot to improve the appearance of dull and/or age damaged skin. But do not over do it and decrease use as outlined above.
What to use: Be careful as AHAs and glycolics are often in products with a low pH and can be drying. La Vie Celeste’s glycolic mask is good because it is pH balanced and relatively gentle, which is why it's one of our five best products with glycolic and AHA.
What is it and why: Retinol is Vitamin A in its whole molecule form, which can be broken down into thousands of smaller components, including Retinoic Acid (or Tretinoin, the active ingredient in Renova and Retin-A).
How it exfoliates: Vitamin A itself does not have a direct effect on skin, but is only effective after specialized enzymes in the skin cells convert vitamin A into retinoic acid (tretinoin). Retinoic acid facilitates communication between cells, encouraging aging cells to continue their renewal process. Retinol is considered a thorough exfoliator and this repeated shedding of the upper dermal layer forces the skin to produce new cells.
How much is enough: There are several reasons to go slow (if at all) on retinol. The repeated shedding of the upper dermal layer will make the skin thin and dry over time (sensitive types will find the process irritating as well). The forced production of new cells may speed up the Hayflick Limit (cells can only renew themselves a finite number of times). Users should be aware that this is a controversial ingredient. Retinol has been shown to produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death, and it may be implicated in cardiovascular disease. Read more on retinol here.
Recommended? No. Over the past two years I have moved from being relatively neutral (my skin is too sensitive for retinol, but if other people like it so be it) to more overtly discouraging its use. I get letters almost every day from people who report that prolonged use has made their skin dry and dull. It seems to me that it offers dermatologists and their clients a quick fix, but with little regard for the long term potential side effects mentioned above.