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* Vitamin K


Phytonadione is a fat-soluble vitamin naturally made in the liver that is used by the body to ensure proper blood clotting. It is used in cosmetics and beauty products "to help diminish vascular conditions that emerge as skin imperfections such as dark circles under the eyes, redness from rosacea, and broken capillaries including spider veins," according to research.

It is often seen as a key ingredient in under eye creams that claim to reduce or eliminate dark circles, although it is often used in combination with other antioxidants and ingredients. A 2004 study published in the Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology studied the results of 57 patients with dark circles who applied a gel containing 2% vitamin K plus 0.1% retinol, vitamin E, and vitamin C over the course of 8 weeks. 47% of the testers noted "fair to moderate" improvement in their dark circles (Source). However, some scientists note that applying Vitamin K topically can yield no direct effects to under eye circles, spider veins, or any other vascular conditions, because Vitamin K can only be produced in the liver and be delivered internally. They credit the effects of the topical creams to the combination of ingredients and anti-inflammatory antioxidant properties.

Safety Measures/Side Effects:

Although the Cosmetic Database finds Phytonadione to be a low hazard ingredient and only notes organ system toxicity as a concern with animal studies showing blood effects at very low doses, other countries such as France and Saudi Arabia have banned Phytonadione from use in cosmetics because of its irritating properties.

According to an article released regarding the ban in France, there have been twelve cases of extreme allergic reactions to Phytonadione that resulted in eczema-related conditions of the face and body; six of the reactions were so severe that patients were hospitalized. France's cosmetic governing board is also concerned because "K1 can also compromise the use of certain medicines and drugs, specifically those to treat hemorrhaging conditions."

Recommended Products w/ Phytonadione:

Redpoint Age Management Essentials, MD Skincare Lift and Lighten, Skyn Icelandic Relief Eye Cream
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